•Arable land (land good for agriculture): 11% large Hokkaido farm + 4% in other areas
•2 main types of agricultural fields in Japan: irrigated rice fields called tambo or suiden; and non-irrigated fields called hatake that are used mostly to grow vegetables.
•some terraced rice fields (棚田 tanada atau 千枚田 senmaida) in Japan,
•most rice is grown on low-lying alluvial plains and valley bottoms that are easy to irrigate. The hatake are often found on higher, drier ground that is difficult to irrigate.
•Japan’s food self-sufficiency ratio 39 percent (2009)
•The amount of land under cultivation in Japan 4.65 million hectares (2006).
•Rice production << 20%
•severe shortage of agriculture land
•Overproduction of rice
•farmland prices <<70 percent
UNDERGROUND URBAN FARM
Fruit and Vegetables Grown Under Office Building
The hi-tech vegetable patch, called Pasona O2, is located in the Otemachi Nomura Building in the Tokyo district of Otemachi, where many major corporations have their headquarters.
1,000 square meters of Tomatoes, lettuces, strawberries, and other fruits and vegetables + flowers and herbs. There is also a terraced paddy field used to grow rice.
15 fully computer-controlled “plant factories” nationwide.
This urban agricultural training facility is tended by former freeters (young people who hop between part-time jobs) with an interest in farming.
In the absence of sunlight, the plants are sustained by artificial light from light-emitting diodes, metal halide lamps, and high-pressure sodium vapor lamps. The temperature of the room is controlled by computer, and the vegetables are grown by a pesticide-free method in which fertilizer and carbon dioxide are delivered by spraying. Hydroponics, in which plants are grown in water and hardly any soil is used, is one of the methods of cultivation used in the facility. are known as “plant factories.”
•the fastest-growing sector in Japanese agriculture
•meat production àfrom 1.7 million tons in 1970 to 3 million tons in 2001.
•The dairy and beef industry in Japan is valued over $10 billion. In Japan there are 4.56 million cattle, 9.61 million pigs, 294 million chickens and 11,000 sheep
•Milk cows (Hokkaido, where 25 % of farmers run dairies, Iwate, and near Tōkyō and Kobe.
•Meaty cows cattle àin western Honshū, and on Kyūshū.
•Hogs + Pork à everywhere
imported $8.3 billion in beef, pork, and poultry meat.
•24.5 million hectares of forests, 19.8 million are classified as active forests
•64.7% from total land area of Japan is forest.
•Nearly 33.5 million cubic meters of round wood were produced in 1986, of which 98 % was destined for industrial uses.
•Japan was the world’s third leading producer of paper and paperboard in 2000 (after the United States and China), at over 31.7 million tons
• About 45% of the forest area consists of plantations.
1.The Japanese cedar (sugi), which grows in most of Japan, is the most exploited species, followed by
2.Japanese cypress (hinoki) and
3.Japanese red pine (akamatsu).
•Domestic roundwood production 48% of Japan’s total wood fiber demand; the rest was supplied by imports.
Aomori, Iwate, Akita, Fukushima, Gifu, Miyazaki, + Kagoshima
Fishing industry (水産業）
•Hasil kedua tertinggi setelah beras.
•Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (Japan) à Japanese Fisheries Agency.
•3 kategori dalam perikanan jepang:
> coastal and offshore fisheries
consist mainly of sardines, herring, yellowtail, sea bream, mackerel, tuna, and salmon
> international water (vessels)
Perusahaan terbesar: Nippon Suisan Kaisha dan Maruha Nichiro
Fakta tentang perikanan di Jepang
•The Japanese eat more fish per capita than residents of any other developed country
•128 pounds annually :: global average of 37.7 pounds. F
•ish accounts for 23 % of the protein in the daily Japanese diet, vs. 4 percent in the U.S.
•the world’s largest importer of fish, buying $14.4 billion worth in 2008 (U.N. Food and Agricultural Organization).
•Japan consumes 7.5 million tons of fish each year and exports 0.5 million tons.
•Tokyo’s Tsukiji, the world’s largest fish market, stretches over an area the size of 43 football fields
•The tsunami caused $1.3 billion in damage to the fishing industry in Iwate prefecture alone.
Whaling (penangkapan paus)
•Sudah dimulai sejak abad ke 12
•Tahun 1986 IWC (int’l whale commission) melarang perburuan paus untuk keperluan konsumsi
•Bagaimana nasib nelayan paus jepang?
Paus ditangkap untuk keperluan ‘research’ oleh ICR stl diteliti, dijual di pasar